Sunday, March 15, 2015
Some of us who come from boxing/kickboxing lineages will express KM principles with brutal and effective Panantukan/Sikaran styled Filipino "dirty boxing", while others with a JKD background may prefer a KM flavored "straight blast" or Hakka-inspired trapping.
My pre-KM lineage is mostly Japanese traditional martial arts including sword styles (Iaiajutsu/Kenjutsu), percussive styles (ninjutsu) and Japanese locking systems (Aiki). That means that locks and locking show up pretty frequently in what I do and what I teach. Lately some of my beginner students have been asking me about locking, so I'd like to explain why I think these systems are so important to learn, and a few pointers to improve your skills in this area of fighting.
During the recent Peaceful Warrior Camp, Swedish expert instructor Stefan Linarsson (6th Dan) gave a Locking class and the question was raised "Why bother locking?" I think locking is essential for several reasons:
Locking involves being in close contact with your opponent. In order to lock successfully, we must be near enough to take firm control of whatever limb or joint we are planning to secure, and keeping contact allows us to "feel" their intention and quickly/smoothly react to any changes. Staying close also puts us inside their punching and kicking range, and this makes it a great toolkit for use when the opponent is larger and has longer reach. This also makes locks an excellent response when opponents enter CQB distance with us first.
By locking well, we are able to precisely control the amount of pressure we exert in order to gain the compliance we need. In some situations, unfortunately, it is necessary to injure someone in order to stop their aggressive intent, but unlike striking systems, locking allows us the ethical chance to submit without injury. This can be useful for dealing with people who are drunk or who otherwise do not warrant an aggressive and overly violent response. Done well, locks offer a great option as part of an integrated weapons defense/disarming, since one principle for neutralizing a knife is to immobilize the knife arm to prevent the knife from making contact and moving to cut. Lastly, many locks and holds can be properly applied while still standing, and this allows us to put multiple attackers in each others' way when needed.
Locking into a submission gives us the option of pain compliance to stop an attacker, versus striking arts where compliance comes as a result of the knockout - which can have more dire consequence of injury. Law enforcement professionals often use locks as part of R & R (restraint and removal) as a step in applying handcuffs or plastic restraints to suspects.
Furthermore, since we will only ever fight when provoked or in defense of someone else, this suggests the other party has broken the law by committing assault. Locking is an effective way of executing a citizen's arrest and immobilizing the suspect while law enforcement arrive on the scene. While laws of countries and jurisdictions may vary, in general the reasonable use of force is allowed for citizen's arrest. This may not include repeated kicks and punches to the head or use of weapons, but often will include locking.
Chokes and Strangles
Along with breaks, chokes and strangles are the most serious of the locking arsenal. Locking the head/neck is always potentially dangerous, and can easily result in permanent injury or death. As such these holds should be practiced with care and only used in very serious situations. That being said, locking the head/neck is one of the fastest and best ways to get an attacker to stop. The sudden "black tunnel" of a strangle or the pounding of the temples and the shock of struggling for breath that a choke causes get just about anyone to submit. Done properly, these techniques apply and finish so quickly that the opponent often has little chance to resist.
For clarity, chokes are head/neck locks that seek to block the opponent from breathing, while strangles target the arteries to stop blood flow. The results can look the same (opponent passes out and goes limp), but the means are completely different.
So what are some keys to locking??
Isolate the target joints
Locking is usually done against (at least one) specific joint(s). For each lock, take care to understand the specific area being targeted and learn how to isolate it. This means that we immobilize the joint in order to limit its range of motion. To effect the lock, we then apply pressure to the joint, usually against the typical range of motion. This can result in pain compliance as the joint hyper-extends, or ultimately into a break. All joints are not created equal, and some joints are simple hinges (elbow/knee), ball and sockets (shoulder/hip) or radials (wrist/ankle/neck). As the above clearly illustrates, most locking principles work equally well on both high and low-line variants (elbow/knee, wrist/ankle, fingers/toes).
Precision is key when locking. Especially when locking the elbow and knee joints (which is fairly common). For example, finding the elbow lever position is easily done by aligning with the little finger on the hand, since the little finger always identifies the direction of the elbow hinge, even when the wrist/hand is rotated.
In order to quickly and effectively execute a lock, it is important that we remove any slack from the target joint. This means that if the opponent's arm/leg/head can still move around, the lock will be loose and take more time to work, or may not even work at all. Good locks do not offer any escape for the joint, and the opponent is not able to move the target in any direction except against the usual range of motion. The most common reasons for slack are that we are too far away or are too shallow in isolating the joint.
Use Leverage and Torque
Once a joint is properly immobilized, we can begin applying pressure to it. Most beginners try to do this using their arm/shoulder muscles. This can work against a weak joint (elbow/knee) when the opponent is weaker or already compliant but can be challenging otherwise. The best locks allow us to use our large muscle groups to apply leverage. This means we should seek to use the muscles of the back, hips and legs primarily, or to deliver the full body weight in order to make the lock more effective.
Thus, when learning locks you should consider how the lock can be applied using the largest muscles available and how your body weight can aid delivering the lock. Often, this means arching the back to extend the pelvis and deliver the back and legs into the lock. In other cases, the lock takes advantage of the large chest muscles and back muscles in combination (especially pulling as you would in a "seated row" movement).
Lastly, relaxation is important to allow larger muscle groups to deliver the lock. Tension in the arms/shoulders will prevent us from using the back/hips/legs and weaken our locks and make them hard to maintain. To borrow an example from rock climbing, the arms/hands are used to set position and take balance, but the back/hips/legs are used to drive and deliver power. This is exactly the same in locking.
There are many locks which apply torque or rotation to the joint. Wrist locks almost always involve rotation/torque. When this is part of a lock, it doesn't work well without it, so it is important to apply the torque fully when a lock includes it. many students will focus on another part of the lock and miss the rotation of the wrist. This makes the lock incrementally more difficult (or impossible) to execute. Torque is a key to taking away balance and structure, and can be an essential part of the locking series. If it is in the movement, don't forget it!
Speed and Simplicity
While there are some very involved and complex locks, I am more a fan of locks which can be executed very quickly and involve only one or two movements. In the chaos of a fight filled with high adrenalin and stress, I find that slower, more complex movements fail, or are contingent upon injuring the opponent before application, neither of which are a preferred result for me.
It is highly likely that an initial hit will be required to disrupt the balance and concentrated before a lock is applied (called "atemi" in Japanese), this can usually be done with a good slap rather than a punch or elbow, and can be more about pain/distraction than injury.
A good lock should be on before the other person is aware of it and over before the other person can react to it.
Once these principles are well understood, smaller people have little trouble locking bigger people.
I hope the above will spark your curiosity in exploring the wide world of locking and in finding new effectiveness in your locking training. These techniques should have a valuable place in your fighting arsenal.
See you on the mats!
Saturday, March 14, 2015
Well, that's that. The Bali Camp 2015 is over and life slowly starts to return to normal.
I am already thinking about the 2016 Camp --- every year it gets better and better...
If you were not there this time (first of all, shame on you!) then you have no idea what you missed. It was CRAZY GOOD. If you were there (Hurray!) then you know just what I am talking about.
We spent a week doing a variety of classes taught by some of the world's very best instructors, pushing ourselves and each other to the limit. At the end, there was an emotional and joyous graduation for those who tested, and a warm feeling of camaraderie among all of us who had this wonderful experience together. There really is nothing else like it.
Why do I love The Peaceful Warrior Camps so much (and why should you go next time)???
The curriculum is fabulous. We cover everything from Kali to Pencak Silat to Bagua Zhang to Tai Chi, with yoga and meditation as well. We have a great mix of Parkour-based conditioning as well. Over the course of the week we use single/double sticks, blades (knife/karambit), and spend quality time with our boxing gloves and mitts. In prior camps we have gone deep into improvised weapons and the sarong for variety. It's a great mix of styles and systems. We are busy from 6am to 10pm so the days are pretty long, but the time just flies by. In an instant, the camp is ending, and you are stronger and better than when you arrived a week ago. You go home tired but very, very happy.
2) Intensive Study
Camps offer the unique environment for intensive study. Our instructors often take a single theme and use this idea in the initial classes and then develop it and explore in detail throughout the camp. This means we are able to experience an ongoing extension of the thought chain and have enough time to dig very deeply into the application. In the 2015 camp we started with ideas in Kelit, Sinawali, and cross-body (right hand versus right hand). Over the week we worked Kelit into empty-hand and karambit applications, and our Sinawali went into variations none of us had ever imagined before. Cross-body empty hand led to cross-body applications of knife/karambit versus knife, which brought us to some very unique (and effective) responses. Every subsequent step builds on the one before, like a pyramid.
The instructors know what each other do so well that they are able to help even beginners connect the dots from concept to execution of any technique or style and help illustrate the contrast and comparison of different methods and concepts.
In the camp, we get just over 40 hours of mat time (not counting "secret trainings" and other ad hoc sessions). For people going 2 hours a week back home, that is the equivalent of A LOT of training time (20 weeks for you math majors). As well, since it is intensive, you really get a chance to burn in the muscle memory for the movements, and that helps even more. Kali Majapahit cycles are 12 weeks long, and you could get the equivalent of a full cycle or more of training done IN ONE CAMP. Yes, it's totally worth it.
3) Compare and Contrast
Unlike other camps, the Peaceful Warrior Camp is multi-style, multi-discipline. The instructors all come from deep lineages in a wide range of Filipino, Chinese and Japanese systems (as well as diverse styles like Savate and Muay Thai) and even represent several styles of each. This gives an unparalleled ability to compare and contrast various ways of thinking about distance, range, timing, entering, and moving. Some strong similarities exist between seemingly different styles (circular movement in Pencak Silat Cimande and circular movement in Bagua Zhang, for example) and I am forever fascinated with the subtle differences and similarities between our Kali Majapahit and Guro Claes' Kali De Mano.
4) Forming New Habits
Camps are a great chance to break old habits and form new ones. The Peaceful Warrior Camp is almost entirely vegetarian, and it offers a great opportunity to rest your body (and soul) from meat/animal products for a week while training. It seems hard to do in everyday life with our structured work routines, but at camp you can use this opportunity to check out something new.
Guro Fred's deep background as a nutritionist and Sifu James' expertise in Traditional Chinese healing helps a lot, too. Not to mention Guro Lila, who is probably the best vegetarian/vegan chef I have ever met (and always willing to share her incredible recipes!). Going to camp is about "putting on the green glasses" as Guro Claes says and opening yourself to examining your life from a new perspective. This can be the moment that changes the rest of your life (if you let it).
Every night we gather for a special conference. The topics have ranged from talks about nutrition and health to deep discussions of spirituality including Hindu/Tibetan Buddhist traditions, Esoterism and the Journey of the Soul. Yours truly even ran a session on Financial Freedom and Investing. There is a lot going on and plenty to think about. Sifu James is a world-renowned expert on Taoism and just the chance to hear him and ask questions would be worth the trip to Bali. The topics are presented in a very open and informative manner, and designed to help you develop the curiosity to explore further in conversation with the instructors or on your own after the camp. These help us make the camp not just about training, but about learning and growing as well.
6) The Fellowship
I miss everyone so much already.
The camp has so many precious moments to connect with each other. We had people coming from all over the world to be together, many old friends I haven't seen for a while, and many new people who brought their energy into our big family. Our camp has NO POLITICS, NO DRAMA. Just good people and good times. We train hard and support each other when the going gets tough (like Guro Lila's conditioning class!). It makes us all very close. By the end of the week I felt so connected to everyone, like we had known each other all of our lives. I know Sifu James would say that's because our souls have met before, and I also believe that. Still, it's such a great pleasure to see everyone and be together IN THIS LIFE. We all go home knowing that we are part of something bigger; a collection of outstanding people all across the world who share and grow together - always welcome. It is a beautiful thing, isn't it?
Every camp has some people testing. This time we were lucky to have people going not just for Kasama (assistant instructor) but for Kadua Guro (Black Belt Instructor) as well. It gives the camp a buzz as we watch these candidates prepare body, mind and spirit and then go ALL IN to show everyone how good they can be. They shone brightly and everyone was suitably impressed. These are unforgettable moments, key milestones on the path, and we are all proud to be witness to them.
8) The Laughter
There was hard training, yes. That being said, it would not be the Peaceful Warrior Camp without the annual Belly Splash Competition, which always has some big surprises. This year was off the charts with an unexpected win from Team Singapore --- Incredible Job!!
Work Hard, Play Hard, right?
Ah...so many great memories...Camp is just the best thing you can do.
SEE YOU IN 2016??